Research and Action Research
Impact Assessment of MNREGA in Madhya Pradesh with Special Reference to Rural Emigration
The National Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) was passed by the Parliament in 2005, which extends to the whole of India. It aims at enhancing livelihood security by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. The Act includes many provisions which are beneficial to women workers specially child care facilities at work site for child bearing mothers and also in creating assets on individual land of small and marginal farmers and SC/ST. By 2008 the Act covered all the 50 districts of Madhya Pradesh.
The Madhya Pradesh Employment Guarantee Council entrusted a study of “Impact Assessment of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Scheme” in six districts viz, Barwani, Dindori, Khargone, Mandla, Panna and Rewa in Madhya Pradesh in April 2010.
The objective of the study has been to assess its overall performance in the context of improved livelihood opportunities in the rural areas of Madhya Pradesh and its impact on rural migration. More specifically the study aimed to find out (i) how successful has MNREGA been in providing employment opportunity in rural areas of state; (ii) what were the socio-demographic characteristics of job seekers registered under NREGA (iii) how have the employment opportunities made available under NREGA useful in strengthening rural economy, (iv) how has NREGA impacted upon out migration from the rural areas in search of better livelihood opportunities and whether it has resulted in reduction in rural out migration.
The study has been carried out in 124 sample villages (20 from each district with additional four in Rewa district) selected through a circular systematic sampling procedure so as to ensure that the sample villages were distributed evenly in all the development blocks in the state. 12900 households, 122 Sarpanch Gram Panchayats, 122 Gram Panchayat Secretaries, 61 Sub-engineers, 46 CEOs Janpad Panchayats and CEOs of five district Panchayats were interviewed. FGDs have been conducted in selected villages in each district. The study has been completed by now and draft report presented before the Madhya Pradesh Employment Guarantee Council.
Gender sensitive norms, rules, procedures for water and sanitation services and HRD issue for dealing with inequalities existing in institution and service provision were formulated and circulated to relevant agencies. Best practices in mainstreaming gender in water sanitation was documented on video as well in case studies.